- In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a procedure that involves combining a man’s sperm and a woman’s eggs outside of the woman’s body in a lab.
- In most cases, one fertilized egg (an embryo) is implanted in the woman’s uterus, where it can lead to a healthy pregnancy and birth.
- IVF has the highest success rate of any fertility therapy, with more than one in every three successful births, with even higher rates for younger women.
- IVF is used to treat a variety of fertility issues, including both male and female infertility.
In this article, Dr. Mohit Saraogi who is known for best IVF treatment in Mumbai will discuss everything that you should know about IVF along with the treatable conditions & risks of this treatment method.
What is IVF or in vitro fertilization?
The term “in vitro” refers to experiments and procedures carried out outside the body in a glass laboratory dish or tub. IVF is a procedure in which a woman’s eggs and a man’s sperm are collected and combined in a fertility clinic laboratory for fertilization.
The fertilized egg, known as an embryo, is then transferred to the woman’s uterus, where it will implant and give birth to a child.
Medications are often used during egg retrieval to promote increased mature egg development in order to improve the chances of developing healthy embryos. In certain cases of male infertility, sperm extraction may be performed spontaneously or via surgical procedures.
In cases of male infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is often used in combination with IVF for fertilization.
Patients can opt to have genetic testing done on their embryos after they have been developed to rule out any health issues before the embryo is transferred into the woman’s uterus. However, this will increase the cost of treatment.
The IVF cost in Mumbai is comparatively less due to the easy availability of highly skilled & experienced specialists.
IVF and genetic testing
Until uterus implantation, genetic testing can be used to check for genetic defects in embryos. This is achieved using either preimplantation genetic screening (PGT-A), which looks for a number of genetic conditions, or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGT-M), which looks for a particular genetic condition in the male or female’s family.
What are some of the conditions that IVF can help with?
For women with fallopian tube defects and couples whose male partner has low sperm production, IVF is the first-line therapy. It’s a second-line therapy for male and female infertility issues that haven’t responded to other therapies.
IVF allows for female egg donation and male sperm donation due to its laboratory-based existence. These may help couples and individuals who are having trouble getting pregnant due to issues with their own sperm or eggs. IVF is used to treat the conditions mentioned below, often after most treatments have failed.
1. Infertility caused by old age
Age-related infertility is caused by a decrease in the consistency of a woman’s eggs as she grows older. IVF helps a reproductive endocrinologist to harvest healthy eggs for fertilization or to build embryos using donor eggs.
The inability of a woman to ovulate is known as anovulation. The doctor will use IVF to induce ovulation and collect eggs for fertilization.
3. Fallopian tubes that are damaged or blocked
Fallopian tubes that are damaged or blocked will make it difficult or impossible for sperm to reach the egg and the resulting embryo to reach the uterus. IVF helps the fertilization process to bypass the fallopian tubes by extracting eggs and fertilizing them in the lab.
When tissue lining the inside of the uterus extends to the outside, it causes endometriosis, which makes pregnancy difficult. IVF has a higher pregnancy success rate than normal conception for women with endometriosis because it takes most of the fertilization process out of the body and into the lab.
5. Ovarian reserve issue
Low ovarian reserve occurs when a woman’s ovaries have a low number of eggs. The IVF procedure encourages the production of healthy eggs, enabling the reproductive endocrinologist to extract mature eggs from the ovaries directly.
6. Male factor infertility
Male factor infertility is characterized by sperm health problems. IVF is sometimes combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a technique that uses a man’s sperm to ensure fertilization.
What are the potential dangers of IVF?
The IVF procedure entails a number of steps, each of which carries some risk. Severe complications from IVF procedures or medications, according to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, are uncommon.
1. Side effects of fertility drugs
These are potential side effects of ovulation induction drugs, which stimulate egg development in preparation for retrieval. Soreness at the injection site, mood swings, stomach irritation, headaches, and allergic reactions are all possible side effects of these medications.
2. Multiple pregnancies
If more than one embryo is implanted, a multiple pregnancy, twins or more, can result. This can include complications during pregnancy and labour, premature birth, and continuing medical and developmental issues for the baby.
IVF care can cause stress and emotional issues because it requires physical and financial obligations on the part of individuals and couples, as well as their families and friends. Counselors may recommend massage, acupuncture, yoga, or meditation to help IVF patients relieve stress.